# Math Connections & Extensions

### Math Common Core Standards

### Kindergarten

Count to answer "how many?" questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.

Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category.

Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.

### Grade 1

Represent and interpret data.

Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.

### Grade 2

Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems1using information presented in a bar graph.

### Grade 3

Represent and interpret data.

Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step "how many more" and "how many less" problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. *For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets*.

### Grade 4

Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. *For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor*.

Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.

*[so you might use this standard during the EcoBlitz for your students to figure out the area and/or perimeter of the space you collect data in and then looking at the total number of items found (trash, plants, & animals), you might have students figure out the fractional part of each type and have them compare the fractions using visual models).*

### Grade 5

Interpret multiplication as scaling (resizing), by:

Comparing the size of a product to the size of one factor on the basis of the size of the other factor, without performing the indicated multiplication.

Explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction greater than 1 results in a product greater than the given number (recognizing multiplication by whole numbers greater than 1 as a familiar case); explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 results in a product smaller than the given number; and relating the principle of fraction equivalence *a*/*b* = (*n* × *a*)/(*n* × *b*) to the effect of multiplying *a*/*b* by 1.

### Grade 6

Develop understanding of statistical variability.

Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. *For example, "How old am I?" is not a statistical question, but "How old are the students in my school?" is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students' ages*.

Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape.

Summarize and describe distributions.

Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots.

Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by:

Reporting the number of observations.

Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement.

Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered.

Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data were gathered.

### Grade 7

Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population.

Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences.

Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. *For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be*.

### Grade 8

Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.

Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.

### High School Statistics and Probability

Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables

Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and trends in the data.

Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.ID.B.6.A

Fit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context. Emphasize linear, quadratic, and exponential models.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.ID.B.6.B

Informally assess the fit of a function by plotting and analyzing residuals.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.ID.B.6.C

Fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association.